Gas Chromatography

Chromatography is the name of a process used to detach chemical substances and varies based on different partitioning actions between a stationary phase and a flowing mobile phase for dividing elements in a mix.

The sample is moved by a stream of moving gas through a tube that holds evenly separated solid, or could be coated with a liquid film. Gas chromatography is one of the most critical techniques in chemistry because of its ease, highly effective nature, and sensitivity. It is most frequently used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, to purify compounds, and to determine certain thermochemical constants.

Likewise, gas chromatography is widely used in the automatic monitoring of industrial processes. Take, to demonstrate, gas streams that are regularly analyzed and adjusted with manual or automatic responses to undo undesirable differences.

There are several routine analyses that are achieved quickly in environmental and other fields of the like. For example, there exist many countries with certain monitor points that exist as a way of consistently calculating emission levels of gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxides. Additionally, gas chromatography can be used in analyzing pharmaceutical products.

The technique for gas chromatography starts with introducing the test mixture into a stream of inert gas, most often a gas that works as a carrier gas such as argon or helium. Samples that are in the liquid state are first vaporized before being injected into the stream of carrier gases. Later, the gas stream moves through the packed column that contains elements of the sample moving at speeds that are decided by the level of interaction between each constituent with the stationary nonvolatile phase. Those components that have a more prominent interaction with the stationary phase are slowed more and thus separate from those with a less prominent interaction. As these components begin to be wiped out of the column with a solvent, they can be numbered by a detector and/or collected for further analysis.

There are two main types of gas chromatography: gas-solid chromatography (GSC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The first, gas-solid chromatography, is centered around the solid stationary phase, during which retention of analytes occurs as a result of physical adsorption. Gas-liquid chromatography is often employed when dividing ions that can be dissolved in a solvent. If it crosses paths with a second solid or liquid phase, the different solutes in the sample solution will interact with the other phase to certain degrees that can change based on differences in adsorption, exchange of ions, partitioning or size. These changes give the mixture components the ability to divide from each other when they use these difference to alter their moving times of the solutes through a column.

Gas Chromatography with Carrier Gases

When choosing a carrier gas, the selection depends on the type of detector being employed and the parts that are being determined. Carrier gases used in chromatographs should be highly pure and chemically inert towards the sample. To ensure that there is no additional water or other impurities, the carrier gas system may have a molecular sieve.

The most prevalent injection systems used to introduce gas samples are the gas sampling valve and injection via syringe. Both liquid and gas samples have the ability to be injected with a syringe. When in its most simple form, the sample is at the start injected into and vaporized in a heated chamber, then transferred to the column. When packed columns are utilized, the first section of the column is most often employed as an injection chamber and warmed to a proper temperature separately. With capillary columns a small portionvof the vaporized sample is transferred to the column from a separate injection chamber; this is known as split-injection. This technique is used when hoping to keep the sample volume from overloading the column.

A method referred to as on-column injection can be used for capillary gas chromatography when trace components could be found in the sample. In on-column injection, the liquid sample injected with a syringe straight into the column. Next, the solvent can evaporate and a concentration of the sample components occurs. In gas samples, the concentration is generated by a process known as cryo focusing. In this process, the sample components are concentrated and separated from the matrix by condensation in a cold-trap prior to the chromatography process.

To conclude, there is also a technique referred to as loop-injection, and it is commonly used in process control where liquid or gas samples flow consistently through the sample loop. The sample loop is filled with a syringe or an automatic pump in an off-line position. After that, the sample is transported from the loop to the column by the mobile phase, sometimes having a concentration step.

Whether you’re looking for specialty gases to be used in gas chromatography, or any other industry that utilizes specialty gases, PurityPlus has a multitude of specialty gas products to meet your need. We have a large selection of specialty gases and specialty gas equipment, along with the resources and experts on hand to provide assistance in any areas you may need. For additional information, browse our online catalog or via email at or at (217) 245-2183.